Sweating is the release of sweat from the sweat glands on the skin surface. This is a normal physiological process which helps the body to get rid of unnecessary metabolic products and maintain constant body temperature (by releasing heat).
Sweating is a continuous process, and about 0.5 litres of sweat are produced per day even in the most favourable temperature conditions. Sweat is a colourless liquid which contains 98-99% of water. Sweat has no smell; it appears after the contact with the bacteria living on the skin.
Sweat glands are located in the subcutaneous layer. Most of them are found in the skin of hands, feet and armpits (400-500 per square centimetre).
There are two types of sweat glands in human skin: eccrine and apocrine. Apocrine sweat glands are mostly located in the skin of armpits, groin, and external ear canal. Apocrine sweat glands produce pheromones which are important for forming individual smell of a person, and they play no role in thermoregulatory processes.
Eccrine sweat glands are evenly located all over the body. Eccrine sweat glands that are located in the armpits, on the hands and feet are not significant for thermal regulation; activation of these glands is related to emotional stimulation
There are two types of sweating:
thermoregulatory sweating appears on the entire surface of the body in response to increase or decrease in the ambient temperature in case of physical activity;
psychogenic sweating occurs as a response to psychoemotional stress and is manifested locally.
Sweating disorders can be qualitative – chromhidrosis, urhidrosis, and quantitative – anhidrosis, oligohidrosis, hyperhidrosis.Hyperhydrosis – enhanced sweating is a common issue. Up to 5% of people suffer from pronounced dsturbing sweating.
Hyperhidrosis can be generalised and local, primary (idiopathic) and secondary, which develops in case of endocrine, oncological or infectious diseases.
Possibilities and options for excessive sweating elimination:
Antiperspirants applied on the surface of the skin (reduce the function of sweat glands by blocking their openings), deodorants (inhibit unpleasant smell);
Physiotherapeutic methods: therapeutic bath, ionophoresis for the areas of sympathetic nodes, radiotherapy for reflexogenic areas, massage;
Drug therapy: anticholinergic, sedative drugs and beta-blockers.
Surgical treatment: sympathectomy, curettage.
Botulinum Toxin Type A injection in the subcutaneous layer: the mechanism of action is based on blocking the transport of the main sympathetic mediator acetylcholine of sweat glands Sympathetic neurotransmission, as a result, nerve impulses do not reach sweat glands and sweating is reduced or totally suspended for a period of 4 to 9 months. The effect develops within 1-2 weeks after the injection. Injections are not allowed in case of local inflammatory processes of the skin. It is not recommended to go to a sauna, hot bath, tanning parlour or consume alcohol for the first five days after the injection.